Skin Types & Conditions
Updated: Oct 16, 2020
Let's take a good look at the different types of skin.
There are 5 different skin types:
There are also multiple conditions that can go along with these different skin types that sometimes get interchanged as a skin type:
- Aging (wrinkles, sagging skin etc)
- Hyper- / Hypo-pigmentation
- Large pores
Most people are pretty familiar with what skin condition they have going on but sometimes the actual skin type is unknown. Don't know what skin type you are, Click here for our skin quiz to learn yours. Each skin type comes with their own concerns and requirements, that has to be addressed properly to keep your skin looking its best. The easiest way to tell what skin type you have is by taking note of how your skin feels 1 hour after cleansing. Let me help you understand the difference in each.
This skin type retains appropriate moisture and sebum (oil) production, has few breakouts and maintains generally clear, small pores. After cleansing, the skin does not feel too oily or dry after 1 hour. Can use generally any type of balancing cleanser, toner, and moisturizer. Skin care regimen should include products to maintain skin elasticity, moisture and prevent aging.
This skin type lacks adequate moisture retention and sebum (oil) production and can be sensitive to products and the environment. This type can be prone to fine lines and wrinkles at earlier ages and is usually thin and delicate in nature. Skin can appear flaky and dull. After cleansing, the skin feels tight and/or dry after 1 hour. This skin type should use a creme based cleanser with weekly granule exfoliation and hydrating masks. Toners should balance skin and increase moisture. Hyaluronic Acid is your best skin friend. Moisturizers should increase moisture without clogging pores.
*Dry skin = Lacking in sebum (oil) and appears flaky/dull. Increase moisture!
*Dehydrated skin = Lacking in water and appears "crepe" like. Increase water intake!
This skin type produces too much sebum and can appears thick and shiny from the surface sebum. This skin type usually has larger pore size from being clogged due to standing oil which also makes the skin prone to breakouts. After cleansing, the skin feels oily and looks shiny after 1 hour. A benefit to having oily skin is that it tends to take longer to show signs of aging. This type of skin should primarily use a gel based cleanser though foaming cleansers can assist with decreasing sebum production as well. Just be cautious, because many foaming cleansers will strip away too much oil and cause a rebound increased sebum production due to lack of moisture. Many benefit from doing a pre-cleanse of the skin with a non-comedogenic oil, like Safflower, Grapeseed or Rosehip oil, because oil is attracted to oil and this extra step will help draw out the excess oil in the skin. Granule exfoliation can occur 2-3 times a week followed with a clay mask to balance oil. Professional extractions with steam treatments and skin balancing treatments should happen at least monthly, every 2 weeks preferably for very oily skin to prevent your pores from becoming too trapped with oil and becoming more noticeable. Toners should balance skin and Moisturizers must be lightweight. Do not skip the Moisturizer just because you have oily skin! Your skin will produce extra sebum if it thinks it is becoming dehydrated and yield more of an oily look. Remember that Glycolic Acid is your best skin friend to decrease the extra oil but make sure you are following the protocol given by a Licensed Esthetician so that the glycolic acid is dosed properly for your skin.
This skin type has areas that are both dry and oily with mainly an oily/ larger pore sized T-Zone and dry cheeks. This is the most common skin type. This skin type can have multiple concerns due to the varying skin tissue. This type of skin should primarily use a gel based cleanser to decrease the excess sebum production. Granule exfoliation can occur 2-3 times a week followed with a clay mask to the oily areas to balance oil and a hydrating mask to the dry areas to maintain moisture in drier areas. This skin type would benefit from professional extractions at least monthly to prevent pores from clogging and becoming more noticeable. Toners should focus on balancing skin. Moisturizers can be tricky because this skin type has to find the perfect balance between moisturizing the dry areas and not clogging the oily ones. A good regimen will balance the entire face.
Sensitive skin is prone to high sensitivity, redness, itchiness and frequent irritation. This skin type has to be very cautious of what it comes into contact with to prevent skin problems. Gentle, non-fragranced, creamy cleansers should be used along with very gentle toners and moisturizers. Skin can also become sensitized from incorrect/improper skin type product use, medications, sun exposure and many other reasons. Know your triggers and know that less is so much more in those with sensitive skin!
Skin concerns are conditions of the skin that may go along with our skin type that we seek assistance with correcting. There are many that exist but we will highlight the most common below.
Dehydrated skin commonly gets mislabeled as dry skin and vice versa. Lets reiterate a point made earlier in this blog;
Dry skin is lacking in sebum (oil) and appears flaky/dull. Increase moisture content via moisturizing products!
Dehydrated skin is lacking in water and appears "crepe" like. Increase water intake via drinking more water! 8 standard cups of water daily is the minimum.
Dehydrated skin feels tight, can be flaky and even have dry patches in some areas. You can easily see how dehydrated your skin is by testing your skin's turgur. If you pull on the skin, the normal response is to return to its original form immediately, if you pull up on it and it stays scrunched up, you have slow skin turgur => lost elasticity => water loss => dehydrated skin.
Oily skin can even be dehydrated and as a result, produces more sebum which makes skin look even more oily. Most dehydrated skin results from a lack of water intake, improper skin product usage and environmental exposures like cold temperatures. Dehydrated skin benefits mostly from water-based products that will push the necessary hydration deep into the skin tissue. And of course drinking more water!
Milia are small, bump-like, hard, keratin crystalized cysts found under the skin, a common problem in dehydrated, under-exfoliated skin. They most often appear on the face, commonly around the eyelids and cheeks, though they can occur anywhere. The key to preventing these are properly moisturizing your skin and drinking enough water each and every day. A licensed professional, like an Esthetician, can properly lance these out but they will return if you do not maintain a proper home regimen.
Acne is not all created the same. Acne can be caused by increased sebum congestion of pores, hormonal imbalances, gut imbalances or by bacteria that can enter and become trapped in the skin producing deep cystic inflammations. Getting to the cause of the acne will help one get to the solution of acne faster because acne is literally an outward manifestation of internal changes in the body. The wrong remedy may either give very temporary results or actually inflame the skin even more. Seeing a professional Esthetician will help you get on the right track for the specific type of acne affecting the skin.
Hyperpigmentation is a very common skin condition that is highly sought out for correction. Hyperpigmentation is a darkening of an area of skin due to a protective response from the body after some sort of injury/inflammation/sensed issue. Hyperpigmentation can arise from multiple causes, the leading cause being acne lesions that have been "picked at." Other causes include hormonal imbalances, uncontrolled/undiagnosed endocrine issues like Diabetes, rough/dry patches of skin that attempted to heal on their own, incorrect product usage that caused a reaction, and many other reasons. The best remedy is to correct the cause and use the help of a Licensed Esthetician to properly lighten the area to prevent over lightening the area, causing hypopigmentation.
Hypopigmentation is the loss of pigment in the skin and can happen naturally in situations like vitiligo or as a result of incorrect skin lightener use. Seek the assistance of a Licensed Esthetician or Dermatologist for a remedy.
Visible pores usually arise in oily/acneic conditions where the pore becomes clogged that leads to stretching of the pore due to the retained sebum (oil), debris, dead skin cells, etc. Once the pore has become stretched to the point where it is visible, you cannot "shrink" it back. The best remedy is keeping the skin properly exfoliated and maintenanced by a Licensed Esthetician to keep the pores clear of clogged material so that they appear less visible. Laser and chemical peels can help resurface the skin to lessen the visibility as well. These modalities should ONLY be done by licensed professionals to reduce the risk of burning the skin and causing further issues. Adding Retinol and proper exfoliation to the home regimen is the best home care advice for those with large pores.
Rosacea is a vascular disorder with varying causes that is characterized by redness, dilated capillaries, and small red bumps. Rosacea can be aggravated by alcohol, stress, spicy foods, and exposure to extreme temperatures. The goal of resolving active Rosacea outbreaks is to decrease the aggravating factors and calming the skin. Products including Aloe, Grapeseed Oil, and Yucca root will assist greatly in decreasing redness and irritation. Professional Estheticians will ensure of a specific regimen to assist with decreasing increased symptoms.
Aging is a fact of life, looking your age is not. Truthfully, anyone over age 25 should be including anti-aging products in their regimen because why wait until signs are visible when you can prevent them all together? Signs of aging skin include loose, thin, crepe-like skin that can have fine lines and wrinkles. The skin can appear dull in appearance and lack the glow that everyone desires. Cleansers should be of creamy nature to increase moisture content and toners should be focused on hydrating the skin. Add a serum that has high anti-oxidant properties to fight against free radicals in the environment that increases signs of aging as well as skin firming agents like Retinol, Peptide Blends and Argireline. Moisturizers should include products to increase collagen production like CoQ10. Moisture enhancing products are your best skin friends!
So as you can see, skincare is not a one-size fits all type of situation. To have your best skin, start by knowing your skin type so that you can choose the proper products! If you feel overwhelmed, visit a Licensed Esthetician like Kia of Mahogany Stone Skincare, to help you!